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vendredi 17 janvier 2014

Le compas haïtien au temps des vinyles

Haïti Direct, une compilation pionnière
Haïti Direct
© DRHaïti Direct
17/01/2014 - Si les chasses au trésor discographique sont devenues légion depuis plusieurs années, la compilation Haïti Direct est le premier projet d’envergure à avoir entrepris de mettre en lumière ces groupes qui ont fait l’histoire du compas. Un résumé alléchant de 135 minutes en 30 chansons datant de la période 1960-1978.
Chaque année, le 26 juillet, l’anniversaire du compas est célébré. Une date presque officielle, avec un caractère historique, même s’il faut certainement y voir davantage un baptême qu’un acte de naissance : les évolutions artistiques s’apparentent rarement à une découverte ex nihilo, mais résultent plutôt d’un processus inscrit dans le temps.
Ce jour-là, en tout cas, en 1955, la musique haïtienne aurait connu une mutation majeure, à l’initiative de Jean-Baptiste Nemours, patron d’un orchestre sillonnant le pays pour animer les fêtes patronales. À ses musiciens, il demande de ralentir et d’adapter le meringue qui fait fureur sur l’autre partie de l’île, aujourd’hui appelée République dominicaine.
Ce qui se faisait jusque-là pouvait par exemple ressembler à ce Mal élevé du saxophoniste Raul Guillaume, paru en 78 tours quelques années plus tôt, dans cette décennie déterminante et mêlant nombres d’influences régionales, y compris celles de Cuba. Si aujourd’hui la scène haïtienne est marquée par une rivalité savamment entretenue, surtout en période de carnaval, entre les groupes T-Vice et Carimi, une autre concurrence bénéfique d’un point de vue artistique existait dans les années 60 entre Jean-Baptiste Nemours et le saxophoniste Webert Sicot. Celui-ci tente de s’attaquer à son adversaire en lançant en 1961 sa variante nommée "cadence rempa", qu’il continuera de défendre encore à la fin de sa carrière, comme l’illustre ici le morceau Ambiance Cadence daté de 1979.
Pour comprendre la vie artistique haïtienne de cette période, il faut la replacer dans le contexte, comme le souligne à juste titre le deejay Hugo Mendez en introduction du livret très instructif de cette compilation Haïti Direct dont il est l’artisan. Les débuts du compas ont lieu au moment où François Duvalier accède à la présidence de la première république noire, fonction qu’il conserve à vie en durcissant son régime, protégé par sa milice des Tontons macoutes qui font régner la peur. C’est à l’un d’entre eux que Nemours dédie sa chanson Ti Carole, en 1966.
Les artistes se plient plus ou moins facilement aux courbettes qu’on leur demande de faire, mais tous savent qu’ils n’ont guère le choix. Ou alors il faudra emprunter le chemin de l’exil, aux États-Unis ou au Canada, principalement. Ils vont être de plus en plus nombreux à prendre cette décision tandis que la situation empire dans leur pays. À l’image de Fred Paul, fondateur du label Mini Records.
Quand il a coiffé la casquette de producteur, il voulait surtout pouvoir écouter la musique haïtienne alors introuvable sur sa terre d’accueil. Avec le succès international de Tabou Combo et son tube New York City, au milieu des années 70, sa structure est devenue une référence en matière de compas. La formation emmenée aujourd’hui par Shoubou, et représentée sur Haiti Direct par un titre de 1969 (Ce pas) extrait de leur tout premier disque, faisait partie d’une nouvelle génération de groupes ayant émergé sur la scène locale. Ce courant a pour nom mini-jazz. Parce que les formations comptent dans leurs rangs moins de musiciens, et sûrement par analogie à la mini-jupe très en vogue à l’époque. Une forme de modernité s’installe.
Une énergie nouvelle
© DR Les Loups Noirs
La société change. L’ambiance dans la capitale est certainement celle que décrit Dany Laferrière dans son roman Le Goût des jeunes filles. “Les années 60, ce sont, pour l’Occident chrétien, les années de la jeunesse, de cette jeunesse qui se donnait pour mission de tout chambarder, qui remettait tout en question : l’amour, la mort, l’argent, la maternité, la beauté, etc. Et c’est la musique qui était le principal moyen d’expression, on se souvient de Woodstock… Cela ne se passait pas différemment à Port-au-Prince, mais dans les années 70. De jeunes musiciens ont sauté sur la scène, avec un style original, une énergie nouvelle", fait dire l’écrivain élu récemment à l’Académie française à un de ses personnages.
Pour s’en convaincre, il y a ce magique Pile ou Face des Loups noirs, paru en 1972 et sur lequel souffle l’esprit du funk, avec un chanteur qui s’égosille à la façon d’un James Brown. Ou encore les huit minutes de Ti Lu Lupe du Scorpio universel, formé par le guitariste Robert Martino, transfuge des Difficiles de Petion-Ville, et qui partage encore souvent la scène avec ses enfants à la tête de T-Vice, figure emblématique du compas d’aujourd’hui.
Compilation Haïti Direct (Strut Records) 2014
Par Bertrand Lavaine
http://www.rfimusique.com/actu-musique/musiques-monde/album/20140117-haiti-direct-compas

L'adieu à Rêve de Mousse pour Haïti, c'est samedi

Rêve de Mousse, le navire de l'association concarnoise Solidarité pêche, devrait quitter Concarneau pour Haïti ce week-end. Le quai va s'animer samedi, pour célébrer l'événement.
Après avoir bénéficié des ventes de crabes hebdomadaires en vue de financer le carburant nécessaire au voyage, bénéficié du soutien de l'Accueil des villes françaises lors du fest-deiz de novembre et de quatre lycéennes de Kerustum, Rêve de mousse s'apprête à larguer les amarres et vivre une seconde existence dans les eaux haïtiennes. Pour fêter le départ de ce cinquième bateau une grande fête est prévue sur le port ce week-end.
L'ancien fileyeur, transformé en dispensaire, accueillera à son bord la compagnie barcelonaise Marionetas Nómades, toujours engagée dans les projets de solidarité. Ils n'en sont pas à leur premier exploit. Au mois de janvier et février 2013, on pouvait les croiser au Burkina Faso. La compagnie Marionetas Nómadas, de Barcelone, partira de Concarneau le dimanche 19 janvier avec le cinquième bateau pour Haïti envoyé par l'association concarnoise Solidarité pêche.
Théâtre de marionnettes
Les marionnettistes joueront Le Trésor du pirate. Une pièce de 45 minutes qui sera présentée dans tous les ports où Rêve de Mousse fera escale. La première étape est fixée à La Corogne, en Galice.
Le spectacle raconte l'histoire d'un bateau de pirate qui coule au fond de la mer. Mais une belle sirène sauve le pirate qui se réveille sur une île déserte, ou presque ! Un certain Monsieur Coco lui parlera d'un trésor caché au fond de la mer, et voilà notre pirate sur la route du trésor.
À l'image des départs des terre-neuvas, le port va s'animer afin de souhaiter bon vent au Rêve de Mousse. Une fête d'au revoir à Concarneau, dans la joie. Le public est invité à se présenter sous le chapiteau qui sera implanté face au bateau, sur le parking de l'office de tourisme.
À partir de 17 h 30, les spectateurs découvriront les aventures des marionnettes à fil. Vers 19 h, les organisateurs lanceront une soirée festive en musique avec Gwenn Le Doaré et compères. Une scène ouverte permettra aux groupes musicaux concarnois de s'exprimer et de gorger d'énergie l'équipage qui s'élancera, le lendemain, vers la Barbade. Toutes les ambiances musicales sont les bienvenues.
Samedi 18 janvier, à partir de 17 h 30, parking de l'office de tourisme. Entrée gratuite.
http://www.ouest-france.fr/ladieu-reve-de-mousse-pour-haiti-cest-samedi-1857541

Brasil: piden cerrar frontera con Perú por inmigración haitiana

El estado brasileño de Acre, en el noroeste del país, pedirá al gobierno central en Brasilia que cierre la frontera con Perú para frenar la inmigración de ciudadanos haitianos.
El secretario de Justicia y Derechos Humanos de Acre, Nilson Moruão, afirmó que la situación actual es "insostenible" y que la "administración del caos llegó al límite", por lo que exigió una solución diplomática.
Contenido relacionado
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Brasil crea fuerza especial para controlar inmigración en Acre
Según la agencia de noticias del estado amazónico de Acre, desde principios de 2010 cerca de 15.000 inmigrantes, la mayoría de ellos procedentes de Haití , entraron al país por la ciudad de Assis, en la frontera con Perú.
Por otra parte, en el albergue de la ciudad de Brasilea, que tiene capacidad para 300 personas, estaban registradas esta semana más de 1.200 haitianos.
Los medios locales reportan que en los últimos días se produjo un aumento considerable en el flujo de llegada de extranjeros, una situación que se empeora por el hecho de que disminuyó el número de representantes de empresas que van a Brasilea a contratar mano de obra.
http://www.bbc.co.uk/mundo/ultimas_noticias/2014/01/140116_ultnot_brasil_nueva_politica_migratoria_lav.shtml

Exhibirán en EEUU copia de acta de independencia haitiana

SANTO DOMINGO, 16 ene (Xinhua) -- Una copia manuscrita de la declaración de independencia de Haití, encontrada entre los archivos de un colono francés, será presentada la próxima semana en Estados Unidos.
La rara y valiosa pieza será exhibida el martes 21 por el Centro John Hope Franklin de la Universidad Duke, de Carolina del Norte, a través de su unidad de estudios multidisciplinarios internacionales "Haiti Lab", encargada de la presentación del manuscrito, publicó hoy el periódico haitiano "Le Nouvelliste".
Déborah Jenson, codirectora de "Haiti Lab" y directora del centro de estudios sobre América Latina y el Caribe de la Universidad Duke, dijo que la copia fue detectada entre los papeles de Jean-Baptiste Pierre Aimé Colheux de Longpré, un ciudadano francés que dejó la colonia de Saint-Domingue para vivir en Nueva Orleans en 1811.
Jenson explicó que la pieza que guardó Jean-Baptiste de Longpré (1798-1846), se conserva a la fecha en la librería parisina Rubenstein, especializada en libros y documentos raros.
"Entre las copias manuscritas que conocemos, en los Archivos Nacionales de París, los de Ultramar de Aix-de-Provence (ambos en Francia) y de Jamaica, esta copia es notable por la irregularidad de la transcripción. Muchas palabras se escriben fonéticamente, es decir, al oído, sobre todo los nombres de los generales reunidos", dijo la experta.
Añadió que en el documento "no hay firmas ya que es una copia, pero hay una lista de los firmantes".
Jenson pone como ejemplo las tres diferentes formas en que en el manuscrito se encuentra el nombre del general Jean-Jacques Dessalines, llamado "Desaline, Dessaline, et Dessalines", quien el 1 de enero de 1804 proclamó la independencia de Haití y fue su primer gobernante.
El historiador Georges Michel, consultado por "Le Nouvelliste", explicó que Dessalines ordenó hacer varias copias del acta de independencia, una de las cuales, escrita a lápiz y fechada al 10 de marzo de 1804, se exhibe actualmente en el Museo Británico en Londres.
Michel explicó que no se sabe exactamente lo que pasó con el manuscrito original firmado en la localidad de Gonalves, cuna de la independencia haitiana, aunque no descarta la posibilidad de que pudo ser quemada.
Otro historiador haitiano, Pierre Buteau, agregó que otra copia de la declaración de independencia de Haití elaborada en Fort-Liberté (Norte), el 29 de noviembre de 1803, fue enviada y publicada entonces por el diario británico "Philadelphia Inquirer".
http://spanish.people.com.cn/31617/8515596.html

Portola Valley Sisters Have Ambitious Plan to Help Children of Haiti

Upon arriving at the Holland home in Portola Valley, a few words come quickly spring to mind. Stunning is one. The Greenest Home In America would be a few more.
It shouldn't come as much of a surprise, then, that such an extraordinary home is where you will find three extraordinary sisters.
Kylie, Devon, and Piper Holland (ages 14, 13, and 11, respectively) are some of the youngest humanitarians you are likely to meet.
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"We were kind of born into a family that likes to help people," Piper said, "and our parents always wanted us to help people."
It is something the girls have already been doing for years, starting with the creation of their own website, The Earth Saver's Club For Kids, promoting environmentalism among their generation.
Their latest project, however, is by far their most ambitious. The three recently formed their own record company and have issued their first release, a collection of lullabies sung by Devon called "Invitation To Dream." Their goal is to raise $250,000 through sales of the record to donate to Project Haiti.
Project Haiti is an effort by the U.S. Green Building Council to build the world's first LEED-certified orphanage in the Caribbean nation. In January of 2010, Haiti was devastated by a magnitude 7.0 earthquake. Already the poorest nation in the Western Hemisphere, Haiti has struggled to recover from the disaster and now, four years later, there is still much work to be done.
"This is generations of poverty that they are now trying to deal with on top of the devastation of the earthquake," say Kylie. "It's still a problem."
The girls began selling the record over the Christmas holiday and have already raised $10,000. They are now writing letters to world leaders and other humanitarians asking for their help in their fundraising.
They are confident they will reach their goal. And confident that this humanitarian endeavor will not be the last.
http://www.nbcbayarea.com/news/local/Portola-Valley-Sisters-Have-Ambitious-Plan-To-Help-Children-Of-Haiti-Earthquake-240386361.html

Frenchman Marc Collat named Head Coach of Haiti National Team

PORT-AU-PRINCE, Haiti (sentinel.ht) - After the difficulties of Cuban Coach Israel Cantero to take a stout Haitian National Team to the Gold Cup Championship, the Haitian Football Federation welcomed Monday the Frenchman, Marc Collat, as the new coach of the national team.
The move seems to be a harmonizing of Haiti soccer as Marc Collat and his staff are already part of the D1, D2, and D3 leagues with his team training and working with local clubs reported the Haiti Press Network.
A sum of $20,500 [US] (€15,000) was made available to Marc Collat and his staff to develop the national team. According to FHF President Dr. Yves Jean Bart, the marathon funds of 2013 during the Gold Cup trials were achieved to meet this amount.
Marc Collat
Marc Collat is a former French footballer, born 24 May 1950 in Fort -de- France in Martinique . He played as a defender in the early 1970s to the early 1980s , he spent most of his career at USM Malakoff.
As a coach, he led the U.S. Créteil the Briochin Stadium, Stade de Reims twice Clermont Foot and selection of Mauritius. He took after his retirement for the second time , traces the Stade de Reims in Ligue 2.
Note that the new coach will be presented to the press on Thursday at the ranch of Croix des Bouquets of local FHF.
Read more: http://www.sentinel.ht/sports/articles/soccer/5375-marc-collat-head-coach-of-haiti-national-team#ixzz2qevsneSa

Recovery and Renewal in Haiti

Four years ago this week, Haiti was hit by a devastating seven magnitude earthquake. It leveled the capital and killed an estimated 100,000 to 150,000 people. When I visited a year ago, many people were still living in tent camps, and the presidential palace was mostly a pile of rubble, a bulldozer standing nearby.
Still, as it always does, life goes on. People were on Sunday strolls through Port-au-Prince's revived central square. Schools were full, clinics had busy waiting rooms, and babies and young children laughed and played. Life and love endure amidst devastation.
Humans are resilient creatures. And never have I observed that more than on that trip to Haiti, as people greeted me and welcomed me inside their homes to be interviewed about their experiences, and as I helped a woman, baby on her back, hang her laundry on the line.
On that same trip, I met with a young leader heading up a youth group. The group worked with local neighborhoods on conservation, community gardens, and small, low-tech environmental projects. The leader's goal was food security for his community, where neighbors could be assured a stable, reliable, sustainable, local harvest to provide adequate nutrition inexpensively to the poor families in the area. When I asked what motivated him to leave his work as an extension agent for an international organization to work locally, he said, "Mitch, Ike ...,"naming the hurricanes and storms that had hit his community over the years. It was an important reminder of how communities respond and adapt.
As we mark the fourth anniversary of the 2010 Haiti earthquake, and evoke consider the more recent December 2013 devastation caused by Typhoon Haiyan in the Philippines, we gain a clearer picture of what long-term disaster recovery looks like at the community level.
Since 2005, The Global Fund for Children has provided nearly $2 million in direct support to grassroots organizations in the aftermath of emergencies both large and small. From the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, to the 2010 Haiti earthquake, to a devastating fire in a Thai refugee camp in 2013, our support has helped affected children and families rebuild and recover.
Within hours of the earthquake that struck Haiti in January 2010, GFC grantees were mobilizing relief efforts. Within weeks, they received emergency grants funded by our donors. Now, years later, we maintain our support as the country continues to recover. Since 2010, GFC has invested nearly half a million dollars in grassroots organizations in Haiti that are rebuilding their communities from the ground up. GFC commonly supports long-term relief efforts for three to five years following large-scale disasters, ensuring a lasting recovery for the community.
We've learned a few things about emergency response along the way. Our learning is not about the immediate response to chaos, or media coverage, or urgent needs, but about supporting in the longer term. Here's what we know about disasters:
Emergency relief is the first phase. It is the foremost necessity in the aftermath of a disaster. This includes rescue efforts to help survivors and immediate relief in the form of food, water, shelter, and medical supplies. Needs are acute, and first responders from emergency services, other government departments, and relief agencies are the most experienced in delivery. Family reunification is another aspect of this response. During this time, media attention is high, and people around the world feel compelled to donate in response to the devastation. This phase may last a few days to a few months.
Rehabilitation is the next phase. Taking stock of the damage and prioritizing infrastructure reconstruction take place a month to a year following the disaster. Rebuilding roads and utilities is the focus here. Systems infrastructure such as health care and education is also part of this phase, though most citizens are already adapting to a new reality. Their focus and strategy are diverted from "business as usual" to a different set of short- and medium-term responses to diminished services.
Recovery and renewal is the final and longest phase toward full recovery, often lasting a number of years. Psychosocial needs and the effects of post-traumatic stress are present for years after a disaster. Children may have to adapt to the loss of one or both parents. Families may have to adapt to a decrease in their income stream, defining a new normal. Normalcy in itself -- the stability of routines--takes a long time to reestablish.
The recovery and renewal phase has an important role for community-based organizations, the type of organizations GFC supports. These are the trusted, local, credible, and lasting responders who will be there long after the media and relief agencies have left the scene. They are the adapters that provide ongoing services and support to community members. They reknit the fabric of communities to establish routines and stability.
The stronger a community is, with a wealth of community-level assets, the more quickly and effectively it can rebound. One reason why the path to recovery for Haiti has been long is the level of vulnerability it had to begin with. Poverty and instability were hallmarks of pre-earthquake Haiti, and with these frailties, it could not weather the devastation of the earthquake.
The earthquake of four years ago gave the country a chance to rebound even stronger. I am ever confident that this will be the turning point for Haiti's future growth. I am also even more convinced that strong communities are the foundation to strong recovery, as well as a critical part of disaster preparedness. Let's invest in community-based organizations and assets in any long-term disaster response. Let's include community strengthening as a core part of disaster preparedness. And let's support community actors and community-based organizations as a sound long-term investment for all countries, and for a strong global future.
Follow Victoria Dunning on Twitter: www.twitter.com/gfcnews http://www.huffingtonpost.com/victoria-dunning/recovery-and-renewal-in-h_b_4588699.html

Emeline MICHEL....A big voice and a big heart for Haiti, in Montclair


WEDNESDAY JANUARY 15, 2014, 3:47 PM

BY GWEN OREL
When she was a little girl in Gonaïves, Haiti, Emeline Michel would sing so loudly after school her mother would say, "I am paying you to be quiet."
Emeline Michel, who headlines the 5th Annual Concert for Haiti on Saturday, Jan. 25, tells stories in her songs.
Paul Beaubrun, left, and Cynthia Casasola make up Zing Experience, who will perform at the 5th Annual Concert for Haiti on Saturday, Jan. 25.
"The loudest spot in the house would be my microphone," Michel told The Montclair times with a laugh. That big voice got her noticed at school and she was often pulled out of class to sing "Happy Birthday" for a teacher's birthday, Michel recalled.
Jon Pareles of The New York Times described Michel as having a "dusky, sensual voice that floats through the suave groove of the compas and other Haitian styles."
On Saturday, Jan. 25, Michel, dubbed "The Haitian Joni Mitchell," will perform at the 5th Annual Concert for Haiti in the Unitarian Universalist Congregational Church atMontclair, 67 Church St.
A 'STRONG AND GENTLE SOUL' Other acts on the bill include local Haitian-American band Oxygen Box Band, rocker James Maddock, Jazz House Kids, and the Haitian act Zing Experience. Cindy Stagoff, who organizes the concert and booked the musicians, said of Michel, "She is a brilliant and engaging woman. She has deep connections to Haiti, and understands its culture and political issues, and the needs of the Haitian people." Stagoff said she heard about Michel through the many Haitian artists she's met organizing the concert over the years, who speak lovingly and fondly of her. After watching Michel's internet videos, Stagoff said, "I fell in love with her music and her words." When they first spoke on the phone, the two women chatted for over an hour.
"Her heart lies in Haiti, but she's also firmly planted on the Upper West Side of Manhattan, near the place where I lived as a young law student. We connected as mothers, and as people who care about the world beyond our borders. She's a very gentle, strong soul. I like that in women," Stagoff said. Michel is one of the biggest Haitian artists Stagoff has ever booked.
Particularly exciting for Stagoff is that she is also presenting the next generation of Haitian musicians. Paul Beaubrun, who sings with his wife Cynthia Casasola in Zing Experience, is the son of two artists from the famous band Boukman Eksperyans.
Michel said that she was impressed with Stagoff's musical ear, and that the Concert for Haiti will be a community event, involving local children. It's important to Michel to encourage the next generation. She conducts workshops with students in Haiti, "to give them a sense of hope," she said.
Michel and her son Julian had just left Haiti after visiting for a month when the earthquake hit, she recalled. Nine days earlier they had been swinging in a hammock by the beach, telling stories, enjoying the simple pleasures of life without the Internet and machine-based entertainment.
"I have a feeling that the press is not present as it was when the earthquake first happened. I really thought something was drastically going to change, with all those eyes on Haiti, but a lot of the change has dragged," Michel said.
"I am a storyteller. All my music always has a story, whether it is a love story, or an eye-opener lyric. I start with the lyrics," she said.
"Mesi Lavi," which is Haitian Creole for "Thank You, Life," is a song Michel wrote as a reminder to be thankful for all of the beauty in the world. "I realized we as human beings always have something to complain about," Michel said. "We have goals, we look at another person, in comparison to the life we want. We never assess that now we're healthy, or not running to the hospital for chemotherapy. We have all of the blessings and don't count them. It's seeing the glass half-full, saying 'Thank you, life.' In the video I'm sunbathing in a myriad of colors."
Even before the earthquake in 2008, many people conceived of Haiti as a dangerous, dirty place, noted Michel, but today, when she returns, or brings a friend, she "can't believe what I see. People love to laugh. They are curious about where you are coming from. It's important for me to portray that side of Haiti, a place that has a great sense of humor. The country is still alive."
Last March, on her birthday, Michel launched her latest album, "Quintessence," in Haiti, She put an ad on the radio that said "I want to give you a gift for my birthday," and "everybody came!" the singer exclaimed. "One thousand people showed up for my birthday. I had a wicked time! People in Haiti realize, you don't just disappear. You don't love a country from afar. what you can give, you come back and give it."
One day, Michel intends to go home for good. She has told her son, "As soon as I see you can fly with your own wings, you can come and visit me by the water. "I want to wake up with the birds singing, and the dog barking."
Go and See • 5th Annual Concert for Haiti- See more at: http://www.northjersey.com/community/240331971_A_big_voice_and_a_big_heart_for_Haiti__in_Montclair.html?c=y&page=2#sthash.nAl36Xks.dpuf